استقصاء مرتبات المبرمجين في السوق المصري 2019

هذا الأستقصاء قمت به في منتصف ديسمبر عام 2018، وفيما يلي الأعتبارات الأوليه لهذا الأستقصاء
  1. تم الأستقصاء على الخبرات المختلفة لوظيفة المبرمج، وفي اعتقادي فإن معظم مرتبات بقية فريق العمل تتمحور حول المبرمج، اي انه يمكن ان تنسب مرتب اي وظيفة في فريق العمل الي نسبة من مرتب مبرمج مناظر له في الخبرة المهنية او في الأهمية الوظيفية (هذا اعتقاد مبني عن خبرة وظيفية شخصية وليس عن علم مدروس)
  2. تم تقسيم وظيفة المبرمج الي الدرجات التالية … بالطبع المسميات تختلف من شركة الي اخرى
    • مبرمج Entry level … وهو المبرمج حديث التخرج، لديه علم بلغة البرمجة المطلوبة لكن ليس لديه اي خبرة. في العادة يستغرق هذا المبرمج بين شهر الي 6 اشهر حتى يكون منتجا … والمدة تعتمد على درجة تعقيد المشاريع التي يعمل فيها وعلى استعداده للتعلم بسرعة
    • مبرمج Junior developer … وهو المبرمج الذي تجاوز المرحلة السابقة واصبح قادرا على تحمل مسؤولية مجموعة من المهام واصبح منتجا
    • مبرمج Junior plus … وهو المبرمج الذي اصبح لديه خبرة من سنة الي سنتين، وهناك تقدم ملحوظ في مستوى انتاجيته وتحمله لمسؤولية المهام الموكلة اليه
    • مبرمج Senior … وهو المبرمج الذي تجاوز على الأقل اربع سنوات خبرة (وفقا لانطباعاتي عن السوق المصري … مصطلح senior في السوق الأمريكي قد يعني 10 سنوات خبرة على الأقل) … ولديه حد ادنى من الخبرة الأدارية التي تمكنه من ادارة او دعم عدد 2 مبرمجين juniors تحت ادارته
    • مبرمج senior plus … وهو المبرمج الذي تجاوز على الأقل 6 او 7 سنوات خبرة… وقادر على ادارة فريق برمجي صغير من 5 مبرمجين مثلا ، ولديه مهارات ادارية جيدة جدا
    • مبرمج team leader … وهو المبرمج الذي تجاوز على الأقل 10 سنوات ، قادر على ادارة فريق الشركة فنيا، ووفقا لحجم الشركة وحجم فريقها فقد يكون هو المدير الفني CTO او من يرسم سياساتها الفنية والتقنية … ولديه مهارات ادارية متقدمة جدا
  3. تم وضع الأستقصاء على جروب خاص على الفيس بوك يضم اغلب الشركات المصرية المسجلة في قاعدة بيانات هيئة تنمية صناعة تكنولوجيات المعلومات المصرية … هذا الجروب يضم في اغلبه الشركات متناهية الصغر والصغيرة والمتوسطة وقليل جدا من الشركات الكبيرة … لذلك فأغلب المشاركين في الأستقصاء من اصحاب الشركات في السوق المصري.
  4. تم تعمد عدم وضع الأستقصاء على مجموعات (جروبات) المبرمجين على الفيس بوك حتى لايشارك في الأستقصاء الا صاحب عمل
  5. المرتبات في مصر متباينة جدا بشكل عام وفي قطاع البرمجيات بشكل خاص للأسباب الآتية (في نظري)
    • التقلبات السياسية من 2011 والي الآن
    • تحرير سعر صرف الدولار مقابل الجنيه (تعويم الجنيه) ، الأمر الذي اثر في معدلات التضخم بشكل كبير. كنتيجة لهذا، هناك شركات استطاعت ان ترفع مرتبات موظفيها بنسب مختلفة وهناك شركات لم تنجح في ذلك … وهو كان احد اهم الأسباب في تفاوت متوسطات المرتبات
    • هناك مبرمجين يعملون مع شركات اجنبية (امريكية او اوروبية) بمرتبات بالدولار، وفي معظم الأحيان تكون مرتباتهم احيانا ضعف او ثلاث اضعاف اعلى متوسط للمرتبات في الشركات المصرية
    • هناك شركات من دول خليجية فتحت مكاتب لها في مصر وتعطي مرتبات اعلى من المتوسط بقليل
      الأستقصاء -كما ذكرنا- تم حصره في الشركات المصرية الصغيرة والمتوسطة وهي المتواجدة على جروب الفيس بوك المذكور اعلاه
  6. انا لست خبير موارد بشرية ولم ادرس هذا العلم ولكني محتك به، لذلك ان كان من خطأ في طريقة كتابة الأستبيان فلتسامحونا فيه.
  7. شارك في الاستقصاء 49 شركة
  8. سعر الدولار حين اجراء الأستقصاء كان 17.8 جنيه مصري
  9. لم اشارك في الاستقصاء بصوتي
والآن الي النتائج

اولا: مبرمج ال Entry level …

مبتدي.png

 

اكثر من نصف المشاركين ذكروا  مرتب اقل من 3000 جنيه مصري في الشهر اي اقل من 170$ تقريبا. والربع تقريبا اشاروا الي اجر اعلى من 3000 جنيه مصري، وهناك نسبة معتبرة 12.5% لاتعطي راتب لمن هم تحت التدريب

ثانيا: المبرمج ال Junior

junior

 

اكثر من ثلثي النتائج تقريبا (اللون الأحمر والأزرق مجتمعين) تشير لمرتب من 3000 الي 4000 جنيه مصري. وهناك نسبة مؤثرة تشير الي انه قد يصل الي 5000 جنيه اي مايعادل بحد اقصى 280$ امريكي

ثالثا: المبرمج الــ Junior plus

junior plus

قرابة النصف تقريبا تشير لمرتب من 5000 الي 6000 جنيه او 340$ تقريبا بحد اقصى … مع تفاوت ملحوظ في المرتب قد يتجاوز الــ 8000 جنيه مصري

رابعا: المبرمج الــ senior

senior

ثلث النتائج تقريبا تشير الي مرتب من 7000 الي 8000، اي حوالي 450$ شهريا … مع تفاوت ملحوظ قد يتجاوز الــ 10000جنيه مصري

خامسا: المبرمج senior plus

senior plus

قرابة الثلث تشير الي 12000 جنيه بحد اقصى اي 670$ تقريبا، مع تفاوت ملحوظ الي اعلى من 15000 جنيه

سادسا: الـــ team leader

team leader

هناك تفاوت واضح في هذه الشريحة بدءا من 15000 جنيه مصري اي حوالي 840$ الي اعلى من 21000 اي 1180$

 

Advertisements

Lesson in a graph: Classical 4P’s and its components

classical 4Ps

Being CEO

evernote-0295

people have this vision of being the CEO of a company they started and being on the top of the pyramid…

What it’s really like: everyone else is your boss – all of your employees, customers, partners, users, media are your boss. I’ve never had more bosses and needed to account for more people today.

The life of most CEO’s is reporting to everyone else … if you want to exercise power and authority over people, join the military or go into politics. Do not be an entrepreneur.”

Phil Libin, CEO of Evernote.

How much your Software startup company worth

business_valuations

Three years ago, i planned to raise an investment in my company. The first question i asked myself then was, How much equity the investor will take for the money he will invest. That was a very hard question …

The first thing came to my mind then is to go for a financial expert to do the company valuation. Their rates was shocking and i get back and decided to do it myself. From the first moment i decided that, i realized that it will take a lot of time, could be months. I am an engineer, but i already have a good accounting background from a 3 months dedicated course. And hence I started by Google and red a lot of articles about “company’s valuation” just to decide the study road map. After a one month of reading articles. i searched for a course about financing. Coursera was a very good destination and i got a course there for 8 weeks from Michigan university. After that course, i went back and red again all the articles i red before. and you can definitely say that this article is a summary of my findings. I hope you like it and find it useful, if you do please share it and leave me your feedback and comments.

For a company that all its value is in intangible asset like a brand or software or portal, You will not probably find a way to valuate it except with the “discounting cash flow” approach. In this approach, you valuate your company with the business it can generate in the future. simply, how much business you can do in the future defines your current value.

to work with this approach you need to know two major things:

  1. Your Sales and profit forecast over five years at least.
  2. The discounting Rate (the rate you going to use to discount your future cash flow into present value).

discounting approach

In a recent article i have wrote about “how to build a financial cash flow plan“. and Soon i will write about “how to build your business plan“. This article is focusing on how to calculate Discount rate.

A major factor in applying discounted cash flow approach is the discount rate. Discount Rate is calculated based on three sub factors, below we will talk about how these three factors are calculated and how they are affected by the country you live in. I have made two examples, one from USA where i live and invest now, and the other from Egypt, where i used to do business before.

Rate of Return of the risk free:

The risk-free rate of return is the theoretical rate of return of an investment with zero risk. It is a theoretical concept as there is no risk free business. and it is used as starting point for calculating the cost of equity and capital.  For instance, a bank considering a loan application will start with the risk-free rate and then add additional interest for other risk components such as default risk, inflation risk, and, if the loan is to a foreign company, currency risk.

Usually it is calculated based on the return on government bonds as it could be the most safe investments.

In Jan 2015

  • Return on USA ponds is expected to reach 3.4% at the end of 2015 for 10 years bond.
  • And it is almost 15.27% for Egyptian government over the same period.

Definitely we can not take the market risk free factor as a discount factor for our business. the Discount factor in other project rather than government bond is higher, because the risk is higher, so how much higher is it …

Market Risk premium:

Market Risk premium are percentages that you just pick it up from the internet, we don’t much care about how it has been calculated. It reflects the economical and political stability of the country.

As per Jan 2015:

Egypt: Moody’s rating: Caa1, country risk premium is 4.42%.
USA: Moody’s rating: Aaa, Country risk premium is 0.00%

In 2011

Egypt: Moody’s rating: Ba1, and the country risk premium is 3.6%

Ref: http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~adamodar/New_Home_Page/datafile/ctryprem.html

Beta industry factor:

In finance, Beta is generally a measure of risk. so each industry has a calculated beta factor. it changes every year based on global economy health. You can check beta factor of each industry from this link:

http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~adamodar/New_Home_Page/datafile/Betas.html

By jan 2015…
software (entertainment): 1.12
Software (internet): 1.19
Software (system and applications): 1.1

so based on three mentioned factors and considering that i work in the software (internet) industry then the discounting  factor in Jan 2015 is as follow:

For USA: (3.4%+0.00%) * 1.19 = 4.046%.

whereas for Egypt: (15.27%+4.42%) * 1.19 = 23.43%

Now you know the Discounting factor in which you going to use to discount all your future cash flow that your company can make … into today value.

Now you must have cash flow forecast for 5 years ahead. please review my article ” How to Rock your start-up project Financial plan – Part.1 (Build the template)”  and i prefer you plan your forecast based on this template.

Also review the article “How to Rock your start-up project Financial plan – Part.3. (Financial decision criterion’s)”  to know how to calculate your project Net present value. when you calculate your Net present value, you will use the discounting factor we calculated before.

Many entrepreneurs stop here and assume that the NPV is equal to their startup value, actually i did that before… 🙂

I think you may do that, if your idea is not tested in the market yet, and you have no good prove that your idea can fulfill and meet your forecast expectations. But if your idea is already generating money and you used your cash flow history as a prove that you can fulfill and meet your forecast, then your will be less estimating your company value if you sold it at the NPV.

You have calculated your NPV based on a 5 years cash flow. In real life, your project will not stop and terminate at the end of the 5 years… right ? … your project will continue generate money, and the company could last for decades making profits. how do you include this factor.

Here comes a factor named:  Perpetuity net cash flow (NCF). A perpetuity is a constant stream of identical cash flows with no end. we will keep things simple and make it equal to the net profit at the end of the fifth year. (assuming that you continue generate the same profit every year, not more nor less)

Then we will calculate the “Future value of perpetuity NCF” by dividing the perpetuity NCF over the discount rate calculated above.

Then we will calculate the Present value of the Future value of perpetuity NCF.

And finally the project value is equal to the NPV over the 5 years and the present value of the Future Value of perpetuity NCF.

Feeling lost 🙂 …. here is the Example…

I will make an example using a cash flow stream of one of my projects. i will assume that the project will have the same cash flow stream in Egypt and USA and valuate the project based on the discounting rate calculated above.

In Case the project is valuated in Egypt:

eGYPT

NPV = 1,115,929.50$
Perpetuity net cash flow (NCF) = 2,397,099.94$ (net profit in the last year).
Future value of perpetuity NCF = Perpetuity net cash flow / Discount factor = 2,397,099.94/0.2343 = 10,230,900.30$
Present value of perpetuity NCF = 3,571,167.39$ (see the following figure to know this value is calculated)

Then the company value Equals 1,115,929.50 + 3,571,167.39$ = 4,687,096.89$

PV

Now lets repeat it with the discount factor in USA.

NPV = 2,769,570.18$
Perpetuity net cash flow (NCF) = 2,397,099.94$ (net profit in the last year).
Future value of perpetuity NCF = Perpetuity net cash flow / Discount factor = 2,397,099.94/0.04046 = 59,246,167.56$
Present value of perpetuity NCF = 48,588,408.69$

Then the company value Equals 2,769,570.18 + 48,588,408,69$ = 51,358,050.87$

An important note i should mention here, is that i compared USA to Egypt, assuming that the project will make the same cash flow stream in both countries which is not right, and assuming the same taxation rate, which is not right too.
I just fixed these two conditions to have some insights on the effects of Risk free return and market risk premium.

I did my best to simplify it, if you have a basic knowledge about financing, i mean you know about the NPV, FV, …etc. then mostly you will not find a problem understanding this article. If not, you may need to read about it from the internet. and you may follow the steps i provided to you in this article even if you don’t fully understand it.

Finally, if you like it please share it. If you have any question, i will be very happy to answer you…

You can also download the template from Here
download the template

Creative Marketing

iwc_watch1

I once red about a marketing campaign led by Judy Genshaft, the president of Florida university. The University was building a a specialized research center in biological engineering and bio-economy, and they did not have enough money for that.

Judy sold the the bricks that going to be used to build the center for business men who graduated from the university. Each who wants his name to be written on a brick on the center walls, pays 100$. And those whom want their names to be written inside the center halls pay 10,000$ !!!

And it works, the center has been built using the money paid by those who want their names to be written on the center bricks.

Funding and investments are not necessary come from the usual channels we know. Try think out of the box, find alternative ways, extend your mind, stretch your capabilities, and think in groups.

What kind of business investors seek

high quality revenue

Investors simply like high quality revenue, that is it :)…

In business valuation, high quality revenue—the kind of earnings that investors seek—is defined by three essential characteristics: Predictability, Profitability, and Diversity.

Predictability is the most important, so we will take about it the last.

High Quality revenue2

Profitability:

It defines what is your gross margin, which is (net sales – net cost). investors usually likes business that generates gross margin of 70% and more !!!

Diversity:

When we evaluate companies we look closely at revenue concentration. Investors do not like a business with main revenue stream coming from one product or one customer. It could be accepted for a company in its early stages, but they should have a plan on how to diversify their revenue stream.

Predictability:

This the most critical and important factor, we can define it by the following sentences:

  • How many paying customers you have from the last year.
  • How much cash you can confirm that you going to earn this year or the next year.
  • how many customers you lose each year.

Investors look for the bushiness with recurring revenue.

As an example, if you are in the IT business and have a cloud application where each customer pay 100$ per month. You are at the end of 2014 with 100 customers. You usually lose 10% of your customers each year (churn rate), then we can easily predict that you going to have recurring revenue of 9000$ per month during the next year. If you know your growth rate just like you know your churn rate, then this will be better.

You can count on recurring revenue month over month and year over year. Cash flow is steady and improving all the time. You don’t have to stress about payroll and other expenses, so you can put your energy toward more strategic business-building activities. Having a steady income stream liberates you to take risks and get more aggressive with your business plan. Move into a new market. Go after larger, harder-to-land clients. If you miss a sales target one month, your cash flow remains unaffected.

Recurring revenue builds a valuable legacy for whenever you decide to exit your business. Increasing the amount of monthly recurring revenue coming into your business raises the quality of your earnings and the overall value of your business.

Some professionals estimate that a business with recurring revenue is worth 16 times more than a one-time revenue model (such as rip and replace). Another recent article estimated that an owner can expect to receive 4 to 6 times EBITDA [earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization] for a company on a one-time sales model, while owners with recurring revenue can expect a payday of 6 to 8 times EBITDA

Focus on growth and growth alone is always a temporary strategy. Over time, a company’s value becomes a function of both growth and cash flow. Superior earnings eventually lead to superior value creation.

It’s a simple enough framework, but often difficult to achieve. High-quality revenue requires predictability, profitability and diversity. Do you have highly predictable revenue with high gross margins and without revenue concentration? …

Think about it

How to Rock your start-up project Financial plan – Part.3. (Financial decision criterions)

financial decisions

How can you impress your investor if he is not in your business domain and can’t understand your idea… the only way is to talk with the money language. Financial decision criterion’s are the alphabetic of the money language in this area.

Here i will talk about three important criterion’s, Breakeven point, Pay Back period, and Net present value.
In my business plans, i usually go far for more criterion just like the profitability index PI and Internal rate of return IRR. I encourage the reader to take any free course on financing from any MOOC sites like Coursera.

Breakeven point…

This is the point in time when your project revenues start to cover your expenses.
When you start your project, you will cover your expenses from your own personal savings or some kind of investment till the project starts to make revenues that can cover your expenses.

In the template we built together in part.1 and part.2, it is the point in time where your gross profit converts from negative to positive value.

why it is important, simply because it gives a clear message on how much time you need till your project becomes independent of any external financial support.

Pay Back period…

It is the point in time where your project net profits reach a value similar to the amount of money invested.
why it is important, simply because it gives the investor some insights about the time needed to get back his investment.

Net Present Value…

If you have a 1000$ now, and you invested it in a project with interest of 10% per year. Then 1000$ today will be 1100$ after a year. and hence to know the present value of a future value, you should discount it with the same interest rate. So the present value of a 1100$ future value after a year with discount rate 10% is 1000$.

npv1

But in real life, we have projects that extend over time, may be several years, so we need to discount these values over time to have what we name the net present value.

NPV is the value of specific stream of future cash flows presented in today’s dollars

npv2

NPV is based on the concept that money now is more valuable than money later on. … Why, because you can use the money to make more money.

NPV could be the most important decision criteria. it is used to know the approximate value of the project and is also used to compare between two projects.

I will not go in mathematical details on how to calculate the NPV. I Just want you to feel the meaning of it. Rather i will show you how to calculate it using excel on the template we discussed in the Part.1 and Part.2

In part.1 and part.2 we learned together how to build the template and then how to build different scenarios of it. Now i want you to make a summary for each plan you have just like what i did in the figure below:

cash flow summary

Y0: represents the first day in your project.
Accumulated cash: represents the cash in hand at the end of each year after deducting all expenses and taxes. you can say it is the net profit of each year.The accumulated cash at Y0, represent the cash in hand at the project start date which is your finance or investment.

The NPV is calculated with the npv formula in excel as in the figure below:

npv calculation in excel

The question here is how to chose the discount rate… actually there is no certain way to calculate it. It could be affected by many factors such as inflation rate, interest rate of another competing project, interest rate on treasury assets, and so on.

So this will depend on the project nature, and the country you live in.

I just finished my series on how to build a financial plan for a start-up that can rock. if you have any questions or suggestion for any enhancements, please mail me or leave your comments.

In a later article, i will talk about “how to valuate your project” especially if you don’t have any assets and the project will result in an intangible assets.